艺术世界 2012年1+2月合刊 260 期

在这期合刊中,中外艺术家们不仅对灾难、战争发言,对金融、时局表态,也对八卦、娱乐、寻人启事好奇。如果说“去人民性”是第三世界当代艺术曲线救国的策略,那么我们不如把艺术家鉴定为外星来客,或者是那些悬浮在空中让人类焦虑的 PM2.5 颗粒。“介入”社会并非他们的诉求和职业病,因为他们确实生活在其中,只是以漂移的方式罢了。换言之,当他们漂移时,便成为了艺术家(进入了艺术的状态)。

● Barbara Alper:《海湾频道》


芭芭拉·阿尔帕,《海湾频道》(Barbara Alper,The Gulf Channel ),1991,摄影 ©1991 Barbara Alper / Courtesy of Tepper Takayama Fine Arts|在危机时刻,电视可以凝聚社会。

蔺佳| 文、T e p p e r T a k a y a m a F i n e Arts|图片提供 ■ 距海湾战争结束已整整过去了二十年。枭雄死去,没有留下纪念碑。电视频道永远只播送最新的新闻,旧新闻就像过期的快餐,一过钟点就被扔进垃圾箱,一分钟也不会多等待,可明天的汉堡还是同一个味道。

时隔二十年, 再和芭芭拉· 阿尔帕(Barbara Alper)聊起她 1991 年的作品《海湾频道》(The Gulf Channel )大概令她有些惊讶。这组包含16张摄影照片的作品拍摄了法国电视频道 Antenne 2 对海湾战争报道的电视新闻画面,并在上世纪 90年代在英国的维多利亚与阿尔伯特美术馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)、法国的FNAC画廊(FNAC Galeries)等艺术机构展出过。拍摄电视屏幕的做法作为艺术家创作手段并不新奇,而当那种久违了的非纯平非高清的屏幕画面带着花痕与噪点闯入视线,有关海湾战争这一牵涉了世界 35 个国家的历史事件似乎找回了它的安身之处。是新闻事件与载体形式的融洽,赋予这件作品以意义。

艺术评论家玛莎· 高山( M a r t h a Takayama)认为《海湾频道》从三个层面显示其对新闻与新闻事件的敏感拿捏:它是追踪战时事态的实时记录,是新闻媒体过滤与呈现事件进展的权衡纪要,也是超越信息本身的概念摄影。透过图片标题和画面字幕,观众能够更深地触及新闻中消隐的细节。

 
芭芭拉·阿尔帕,《海湾频道》(Barbara Alper,The Gulf Channel ),1991,摄影 ©1991 Barbara Alper / Courtesy of Tepper Takayama Fine Arts|今天,急驶而过的救护车告诉士兵,战争是地狱。

芭芭拉·阿尔帕,《海湾频道》(Barbara Alper,The Gulf Channel ),1991,摄影 ©1991 Barbara Alper / Courtesy of Tepper Takayama Fine Arts|尽管有第一批伤员出现,战争仍像是一场游戏。


芭芭拉·阿尔帕,《海湾频道》(Barbara Alper,The Gulf Channel ),1991,摄影 ©1991 Barbara Alper / Courtesy of Tepper Takayama Fine Arts|我们必将胜利,因为真主站在伊拉克一边。

阿尔帕也对如今的战争新闻作出观察。因美英两国出兵伊拉克而爆发的伊拉克战争从 2003 年延续至今,与之同步调的是互联网络作为传播力的兴起与蓬勃。当网络成为新闻报道的前线阵地, 记者们随军队出动,Facebook 和T w i t t e r 分秒更新,留给政府、网站管理员或其他管理部门的审查时间闪电般地缩短,新闻的时鲜程度胜过以往的任何时候。但那些 1991 年轰炸、破坏与流血的新闻画面,已从震撼人心的初次体验蜕变为司空见惯的战争速写,成为日常生活这份大薯条的番茄酱。压倒性数量级别的图片包围着我们,刮去我们对战争恐惧的味蕾。

阿尔帕则把自己对战争的关注前溯到越战时期,那时候她是个活跃于反战示威的大学生。至于海湾战争,阿尔帕补充说那是历史上第一次以电视直播手段作报道的战争,对观众来说,面对这种突如其来的直接性也是头一回。当看了电视新闻对海湾战争的直播报道后,阿尔帕决定对着电视屏幕拍照,而当时欧洲制作的新闻比美国的新闻受到更少的审查,所以她选择拍摄法国的海湾新闻。阿尔帕说:“这些带有标题和现成解说词的画面能够清晰说出新闻中发生了什么,我意识到自己的做法是在对媒体本身做评论,评论它对观众的态度、判断力的影响行为。”

时过境迁,任何从现实生活和现世事件汲取生命力的作品都有其时态性。阿尔帕按下相机快门的选择,让在《海湾频道》中出镜的战地记者更像是派对司仪而非新闻记者,从那一瞬间,新闻就甩掉了新闻事件。而当我们今天去重温《海湾频道》,我们也不是为了温习海湾战争,而只是在观一局循环往复的游戏。

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